A 2014 study on the impact of NAFTA on U.S. jobs and trade investment found that the U.S. trade deficit with Mexico and Canada increased from $17.0 billion to $177.2 billion between 1993 and 2013, displacing 851,700 jobs in the United States. [84] NAFTA has boosted Mexican agricultural exports to the United States, which have tripled since the implementation of the pact. Hundreds of thousands of jobs in the auto industry have also been created in the country, and most studies have found [PDF] that the agreement has boosted productivity and lowered consumer prices in Mexico. In 1984, Congress passed the Trade and Customs Act, which gave the president the power to negotiate free trade agreements. He only allowed Congress to approve or reject, and he could not change the negotiating points.