IGOR DODON, President of the Republic of Moldova, said that 2020 will remain in human history as a year of reassessment of the current global system. Over the past 75 years, the United Nations has gradually developed the framework of international law, spread conflicts, stabilized tensions around the world, developed human rights standards and saved lives. But much remains to be done to eliminate the worsening inequalities of the COVID 19 pandemic, he noted, adding that the text of today`s declaration is the result of a discussion with the members of our societies and is the result of robust negotiations between states. His country fully supports joint efforts to achieve the goals it sets and is committed to contributing to the international community`s common response to the major challenges it faces. MOEKETSI MAJORO, Prime Minister of Lesotho, said it was time to reflect on the crucial role of international solidarity and cooperation in responding to global challenges and the effects of COVID-19, especially in vulnerable countries. He stressed that the implementation of the United Nations that we want requires reform of the Security Council, including increasing the number of permanent and non-permanent members. “Global security is not a privilege and should not be imposed on a handful,” he said, adding that the Council`s reform should take into account Africa`s aspirations, as envisaged by the Ezulwini consensus. Transparency, inclusion and democracy must mark the work of the entire UN system, he added. In Chapter 5, Stephen Stedman discusses the problem of managing spoilers in peace processes – local actors trying to disrupt efforts to end conflict. Stedman has studied the activities of spoilers in several current conflicts and has learned the important lesson of distinguishing between different types of spoilers.

As has already been said, it is important that policy makers have a correct image of the adversary in dealing with conflict situations. Stedman presents an analysis of the types of spoilers that can be used to classify spoilers and assess how best to interact with them to advance the peace processes they might try to derail. Its typology focuses on important differences in spoiler motives and objectives; spoilers classified as “limited,” “greedy” or “total”; identifies three spoiler management strategies (withdrawal, a departure strategy that involves a threat to advance the peace process without including the spoiler, and the use of incentives to correct a spoiler`s complaints); and evaluates these strategies based on their potential for success with different types of spoilers. Today, at a high-level meeting to mark the 75th anniversary of the United Nations, the heads of state and government of the General Assembly met in virtual form to adopt a declaration honoring the multilateral framework put in place by their founders in 1945 and pledging to better deliver on the promise to save future generations from the scourge of war. Mohamed IRFAAN ALI, President of Guyana, on behalf of the “Group of 77” developing countries and China, called on Member States to re-engage in UN efforts to ensure respect for the dignity and worth of each person. “We must send a strong and positive signal to citizens around the world to commit to multilateralism and to seek peace, justice and development,” he said. MIA AMOR MOTTLEY, Prime Minister of Barbados, said that as the international community gathers in this strange and impersonal virtual space, it is imperative for nations to pause and reflect on what the United Nations must do when it reaches its important milestone.